When the Julian Calender was abolished in 1752 twelve dats were taken from the Cacalender. It meant that at the Armistice of 1918 occured ib what was known as "Old Halloween" The irony is not lost on me. It was the old celtic Festival that we remembered the dead one. In Wales we had lost this great poet. I would like to tell you about him.
Hedd Wyn (1887-1917), born Ellis Humphrey Evans, killed 100 Killed 100 years ago at Paschendaele
Welsh Language poet Hedd Wyn '"blessed peace" was killed 100 years ago
on the first day of the battle of Passchendaele. 100 years later Donald
Trump appoints a Secretary of State for defence whose nickname is mad
dog ! From alpha to omega eh...
Hedd Wyn (1887-1917), born Ellis
Humphrey Evans, was a sheep farmer turned poet-soldier who was killed
during the First World War.
He began writing Welsh-language poetry
at an early age; when aged 24 he was awarded a chair at Bala; others
followed at Llanuwchllyn, Pwllheli and Pontardawe (the latter in 1915
with the First World War underway).Evans - who chose Hedd Wyn ('white
peace') as his pen name - was born in Penlan, Trawsfynydd the eldest of
eleven children, and lived for much of his life at Yr Ysgwrn, a hill
farm east of Trawsfynydd.
Wynn sat out the war for three years as a
sheep farmer until he was called up for military service in 1917.
Following a spell of training in Liverpool Private Evans was despatched
for active service in Flanders and found himself stationed with his
regiment at the notorious Pilckem Ridge immediately prior to the opening
of the Passchendaele offensive (3rd Ypres).
It was at Pilckem Ridge
that Wyn was killed during fighting in August 1917. Buried initially on
the battlefield (out of necessity) his body was subsequently moved to
Artillery Wood cemetery following the armistice.
September of that
year brought a posthumous award of the chair at the National Eisteddfod
of Wales for his verse poem Yr Arwr ('The Hero'). Wyn had written the
poem while serving in Flanders and completed it shortly before his death
under the nom-de-plume of 'fleur-de-lis'. The chair itself was draped
in black in memorial of Wyn following the announcement of his win and
revelation of the author's actual identity.
A Welsh-language film based on Wyn's life was produced in 1992, Hedd Wynn.
It was at Pilckem Ridge that Wyn was killed during fighti ng in August
1917. Buried initially on the battlefield (out of necessity) his body
was subsequently moved to Artillery Wood cemetery following the
Gwae fi fy myw mewn oes mor ddreng,
A Duw ar drai ar orwel pell;
O'i ôl mae dyn, yn deyrn a gwreng,
Yn codi ei awdurdod hell.
Pan deimlodd fyned ymaith Dduw
Cyfododd gledd i ladd ei frawd;
Mae sŵn yr ymladd ar ein clyw,
A'i gysgod ar fythynnod tlawd.
Mae'r hen delynau genid gynt,
Ynghrog ar gangau'r helyg draw,
A gwaedd y bechgyn lond y gwynt,
A'u gwaed yn gymysg efo'r glaw
Why must I live in this grim age,
When, to a far horizon, God
Has ebbed away, and man, with rage,
Now wields the sceptre and the rod?
Man raised his sword, once God had gone,
To slay his brother, and the roar
Of battlefields now casts upon
Our homes the shadow of the war.
The harps to which we sang are hung,
On willow boughs, and their refrain
Drowned by the anguish of the young
Whose blood is mingled with the rain
Change From Julian to Gregorian Calendar
The Gregorian calendar was first introduced in 1582, but it took more than 300 years for all the different countries to change from the Julian Calendar.
Too Many Leap YearsThe reason the Julian Calendar had to be replaced was the formula it used to calculate leap years. The Julian formula produced a leap year every four years, which is too many. The Gregorian Calendar uses a much more accurate rule for calculating leap years.
Skipped Several DaysTo get the calendar back in sync with astronomical events like the vernal equinox or the winter solstice, a number of days were dropped.
The papal bull issued by Pope Gregory XIII in 1582, decreed that 10 days be dropped when switching to the Gregorian Calendar. However, the later the switch occurred, the more days had to be omitted. (See table below).
This created short months with only 18 days and odd dates like February 30 during the year of the changeover.
In North America, the month of September 1752 was exceptionally short, skipping 11 days.
Switch Took More Than 300 YearsThe Gregorian Calendar was first introduced in 1582 in some European countries (*). However, many countries used the Julian Calendar much longer. Turkey was the last country to officially switch to the new system on January 1, 1927.
|Year of Switch||Country||Days Removed|
|1582||France (most areas), Italy, Poland, Portugal, Spain||10 days|
|1583||Austria, Germany (Catholic states),||10 days|
|1610||Germany (Prussia),||10 days|
|1752||United States (most areas), Canada (most areas),|
United Kingdom (and colonies)
|1918||Estonia, Russia,||13 days|
|* Note: The list includes only a small selection of countries. In some cases, it shows a simplified version of events. Each country is listed by its current name although its official name may have changed since the calendar reform.|
This explains why the years 1700, 1800, and 1900 were leap years in countries still using the Julian calendar (e.g. Greece), while in countries that had adopted the Gregorian calendar (e.g. Germany), these years were common years.
Double Leap YearSweden and Finland had a "double" leap year in 1712. Two days were added to February, creating February 30, 1712. This was done because the Leap Year in 1700 was dropped and Sweden's calendar was not synchronized with any other calendar. By adding an extra day in 1712, they were back on the Julian calendar. Both countries introduced the Gregorian calendar in 1753.
January 1873, but decided to use the numbered months it had originally used rather than the European names.
The Republic of China originally adopted the Gregorian calendar in January 1912, but it wasn’t used in China due to warlords using different calendars. However, the Nationalist Government formally decreed the adoption of the Gregorian calendar in China in January 1929.
13 Days Behind TodayCurrently (1901–2099), the Julian calendar is 13 days behind the Gregorian calendar.
Today's Gregorian calendar uses more accurate leap year formula, making it far more accurate than the Julian. However, it is not perfect either. Compared to the tropical year, it is off by one day every 3236 years.